Animal Man (1988-1995) Vol. 4: Born to be Wild

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The issue concludes with a series of "pull-back" shots beginning with a close-up of Crafty's bleeding body and white blood , culminating with a panel depicting the cartoonist's immense hand, coloring Crafty's blood with red paint. The issue is partly a religious allegory and partly a juxtaposition of the various layers of reality: cartoon to comic book, comic book to real life. The culmination of this self-referentiality is Animal Man's eventual discovery that all of the inhabitants of the DC universe are fictional characters.

He even meets Grant Morrison, the callous "god" who controls his life. Buddy suffers a tragedy when his wife and children are brutally murdered while he is away on a case.

His search leads him into a comic book Limbo , a plane of residence for characters who are not actively written about. Animal Man ultimately confronts his writer in issue 26, and his family is restored to life, as Morrison finds he cannot justify keeping them dead simply for the sake of "realism". Grant Morrison also explains to Buddy that he writes him as a vegetarian only because he himself is a vegetarian too, and every trait Baker possesses could be changed at a whim.

In issue 27, the first of Peter Milligan 's run, Buddy indeed bites into a horse.

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved September 1, Comic Book Resources. Grant Morrison bibliography. Swithin's Day Zoids. Grant Morrison: Talking with Gods.

Summary of Notifiable Diseases, United States,

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Animal Man 1-26 in review

By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Therefore, there was little demonstrated benefit of the more costly enrichment programme. The three cohorts differed in the amount of time that they spent inactive, behaving agonistically, playing and located near a group mate. A planned comparison of one cohort that had been single-housed without visual access to social groups, to the two cohorts that had visual access to social groups during single caging, revealed differences in play and socially-located behaviour, which may have been due to differences in extra-cage conditions two years prior to the present study.

When primates are housed socially with conspecifics as 'social enhancements', the relatively simple inanimate enrichment programme we used was as effective as the more costly programme. When enrichment resources are limited, inanimate enrichment efforts should be focused on monkeys that are not socially enriched.

There is considerable motivation, from basic and applied research perspectives, to determine whether enriching the environments of captive primates will yield beneficial consequences. From either perspective, it is important to determine whether enrichment efforts result in beneficial outcomes. Enhancements that positively affect psychological well-being may or may not be justifiable depending on the balance of benefits and the human and monetary efforts required. The behavioural effects of inanimate enrichment may be influenced by the social opportunities available within a group.

Within the context of a social group, behaviour related to a feeding device occurs within a system of social relationships that may more strongly affect behaviour than the enrichment procedures. If behavioural benefits of inanimate enrichment cannot be distinguished when animals are housed socially, then other enhancements should be investigated.

Each group was provided with environmental enrichment at either a high or a low level of intensity. The study animals lived in either unimale-multifernale breeding groups or all-male groups of between five and eight monkeys. Three cohorts of rhesus monkeys, one consisting of 33 subadults born in Group males and 16 females , a second consisting of 29 subadults born in Group males and 14 females and a third comprising 31 subadults born in Group males and 16 females served as subjects.

All females were observed during their first year living in one of 12 unimale breeding groups containing between five and seven females each.

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Four males were studied as breeding males in these groups, while the remainder were observed while living in one of 12 same-age, all-male groups of five to seven monkeys each. Groups contained both study and non-study animals. In each cohort, half of the groups received a simple, inexpensive environmental enrichment programme and half received a more complex and costly enrichment programme. Monkeys were housed in 2. The runs were in outdoor buildings and subjects could see, hear and smell group-housed, and singly-housed or pair-housed conspecifics.

All subjects were provided with monkey biscuits twice per day, oranges three times per week, additional produce once per week and a grain and seed mixture five times per week.

Animal Man (1988-1995) Vol. 4: Born to be Wild

All food items were presented in food boxes as well as scattered on the run floor, so that all group members had sufficient access to food items. Biscuits were available at almost all times and water was available ad libitum. In addition to the treatment described above, subjects in the complex enrichment condition also received a combination of physical and feeding enhancements including: 1 two PVC swings and two chew-type toys that were constantly available four different toys were presented on a weekly rotation ; 2 hay bedding provided for five consecutive days per month; 3 a wading pool 1.

The more intense enrichment programme was intended to increase the amount of time that group-housed subjects spent in species-typical activities, including locomotion, play, and processing and eating food. Data were collected between and h throughout the year, were balanced for time of day and included periods when the extra feeding enrichment devices varied between full and empty.

Cornel, Email: ude. Robert Swanepoel, Email: az. Christiaan de Jager, Email: az. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Parasit Vectors v. Parasit Vectors. Published online Jan 9. Leo Braack , 1 A. Paulo Gouveia de Almeida , 2, 3 Anthony J. Cornel , 1, 4 Robert Swanepoel , 5 and Christiaan de Jager 6. Paulo Gouveia de Almeida. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.

Corresponding author. Received Jun 5; Accepted Nov This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Key aspects of 36 mosquito-borne arboviruses indigenous to Africa are summarized, including lesser or poorly-known viruses which, like Zika, may have the potential to escape current sylvatic cycling to achieve greater geographical distribution and medical importance. Background Epidemics in recent years of Zika virus ZIKV in South and Central America [ 1 — 3 ] and yellow fever virus YFV in Africa [ 4 ] and Brazil [ 5 — 7 ] serve as reminders of the dramatic manner in which apparently quiescent or stable zoonoses can flare up or spread with serious international public health, social and economic consequences.

Synoptic overview of the African mosquito-borne arbovirues of medical importance Mosquito-borne viruses affecting humans are concentrated in three families, the Flaviviridae genus Flavivirus , Togaviridae genus Alphavirus , and the Bunyaviridae primarily genus Orthobunyavirus but with a few important outliers such as the Phlebovirus Rift Valley Fever.

Table 1 Summary of key attributes of indigenous African mosquito-borne arboviruses for which some mosquito host data are available. Yes Unknown Unknown Infected rodents? Unknown Yes Unknown Unknown Migratory birds?


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Neomelaniconian spp. Unknown Yes Unknown Unknown Unknown [ ]. Open in a separate window. Flaviviridae Phylogenetic trees suggest that Africa was the ancestral origin of all mosquito and tick-transmitted flaviviruses [ 54 — 56 ], probably from what were initially non-vectored mammalian viruses [ 55 ]. Banzi virus BANV Banzi virus was first isolated in from the blood of a febrile child in South Africa [ 25 ] and subsequently confirmed from a febrile patient in Tanzania [ 60 ]. Ntaya virus NTAV Ntaya virus was first isolated from mice inoculated intracerebrally with a pool of mixed-species mosquitoes collected in Uganda in [ 81 ].